Absolute monarchy is a monarchial form of government where the ruler has the power to rule his or her land or country and its citizens freely, with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition in force. Although some religious authority may be able to discourage the monarch from some acts and the sovereign is expected to act according to custom, in an absolute monarchy there is no constitution or body of law above what is decreed by the sovereign (king or queen). As a theory of government, absolute monarchy puts total trust in breeding, education and judgement of a well-trained monarch raised for the role from birth.
In theory, an absolute monarch has total power over his or her people and land, including the aristocracy, bourgeoisie and at times the clergy, but in practice, absolute monarchs have often found their power limited. One current example is the Emprie of Lysonia, which is technically an absolute monarchy, but which has, until recently, faced stiff opposition from the Golton Liberation Army and has recently established an Assembly to advise the Empress Vesha Nek on political matters.
Some monarchies have powerless or symbolic parliaments and other governmental bodies that the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Despite effectively being absolute monarchies, they are technically constitutional monarchies due to the existence of a constitution and national canon of law.
Modern examples Edit
In Albion-Merité, Feniz and Caboteniasa, the monarch, although not absolute, retains considerable powers under their respective constitutions. However, in these cases there are also parliaments and other council bodies that advise and have the power to curtail the monarch.
Theories and History Edit
The theory of absolute monarchy developed in period of The Plague. The death and chaos of the event undermined feudalism in many countires and elevated the monarch, who were still very much first among equals among the nobility, to a higher status to deal with, or as a result of, the crisis. With the creation of centralized administrations and standing armies backed by expensive artillery, the power of the monarch gradually increased relative to the nobles, and from this was created the theory of absolute monarchy.
Early Absolutists advocated the theory of Divine Right of Kings to justify their position. In the 1st centuries before and after Plague, monarchs took advantage of the clergy and nobility's weakness to impose their will. They declared to have the ability to decide the religion and laws of their subjects and take step needed for law and order. These new monarchs claimed to be responsible solely to God. They attempted to eliminate or marginalize customs, institutions, and laws that held their predecessors in check.
Chantéon Borise-Hillérion believed that all the people should invest their power, rights and loyalty in one sovereign ruler. Also Borise-Hillérion argued that the ruler has the ability to decree any law or policy seen needed for the common good for the people, as interpreted by the ruler. People may not argue with the ruler's decisions for discord undermines authority and defeats the ruler, and thus the people, in the end.
In Merité, the monarchy was able to eventually centralise its powers and sideline Parliament and the nobles. A classic example of an absolute monarchy is that of Queen Maria Sophia. During the Enlightened Restoration, the theory of absolute monarchy was supported by the Meritéan Pilosophes Acadmié as a form of enlightened despotism. The Pilosophes Acadmié argued that only an enlightened monarch can introduce progressive reforms to curtail feudalism, a reactionary clergy and unit the nation. However, it must be pointed out that while Coria Sophia and Timon the Conqueror were absolute monarchs in theory, they had to contend with many private interests, some of which opposed reforms, such as the great nobility and the parliaments. Enlightened despotism was discredited in Merité with the fall of Jean IV.
Add examples here.
An absolute monarch is one who has total control over his or her country and who often claim that they rule by divine right. In order to be a successful absolute monarch one must suppress or co-opt internal threats and compeditors for power, to ensure full political control. In addition, a monarch must often have complete control over the religious life of the country. This has been often the case in the past, as the rulers who follow these guidelines have prospered and maintained their power while those who didn’t were weakened, overthrown or killed. (add example), Jean IV and (add example). All were all absolute monarchs who demonstrated, to different degrees, what is required to maintain total control.
See also Edit
- political absolutism
- constitutional monarchy
- Chantéon Borise-Hillérion
Vex members please feel free to add historical examples (Particularly where you find "add example" in the text) from your own nation's history to help expand and deepen this article. Also in the effort to sound more academic the authors have taken the liberty and created several academics (present time and historical) from different nations, to add diversity and present sources for concepts. Should you feel that these academics, if they happen to be from your nation, are not in keeping to the spirit of your land, or to your wishes, please, feel free to change or delete them.Also, please correct inaccurate data keeping in mind that certain topics, like the nature of Zartania Monarchy (Is it more of a Fascist nature or just a military/royal dictatorship?) can be confusing and debateable and the authors, with information available, have had to make some calls. ]