The Civil War of Saint Samuel, was a war between the Royalists of St. Samuel and the Papaist Republicans in St. Samuel that lasted from 161AP to 172AP. Embroiled parties included the Kingdom of Dascunya, the Kingdom of Estontetso, Angliyaa, Aethelnia, Trinia, Phenixia and Lendosa.
The Civil War of Saint Samuel (161-172) refers to the civil war in St. Samuel, which began with the raising of King Leo XIII's standard at the Battle of Véoncy on 22 March 161 AP, and ended on 3 November 172 AP at the Battle of Montopauli. There was some continued organised Republican resistance in northern St. Samuel which lasted until the surrender of Arundel Castle in Saint Jordinian to Royalist troops in May 174 AP.
Disatisfaction with the monarchy in the north became evident around 140 AP with many of it's noble's secretly supporting call's for the nation to become a Republic. A number of prominent Republicans in the early 140’s were punished for there “anti-Royalist” view’s and this only served to make the King less popular in the Republican supported area’s.
In the reign of King George IV (94AP-153AP), Orthodox Cruisianity became the main sect of Cruisianity in St. Samuel. George IV was a renowned follower of Orthodox Cruisianity and Orthodox churches, towns and followers found themselves during his reign somewhat more better off than their Papaist equivalent. Northern St. Samuel had the largest number of Papaist followers and many Papaist’s felt unfairly treated. There was a lot of resentment that George IV had taken the unusual step of marrying a Mounist Emir’s daughter, Dina Il-Bithina, daughter of Emir Salem Il-Bithina of Shuquilat and many Papaist belived that they were now 3rd class citizens behind Samuelonian Mounist’s, who had prospered heavily after the marriage of the King to a Mounist Emir’s daughter.
Lord Sebastien Novino, a wealthy land owner and politician from the Saint Jordinian province became an active Republican, calling for the King to step down. Novino had huge support in the Northern provinces and became a popular figure head amongst the Republican Papaist’s.
In 149 AP a Republican supporter, a man named Ricardo Fiadio, was caught attempting to blow up the Royal Palace in Francisco. Fiadio was put on trial and found guilty for treason, along with six counterparts. The seven men were hung for there involvement in the incident and the King publicly denounced Lord Sebastien Novino. Novino was forced to go into exile in Dascunya, but still harbored his dream of St. Samuel becoming a Republic.
Between 153 AP and 161 AP there were seven failed attempts on the life of King Leo XIII, which led to further ill-feelings between the Royalists and the Republicans, but worse was to become, when Leo XIII’s, fourth son, Prince Maximus, Duke of Saint Leo was assassinated in 159 by Republican supporter, Roberto Solinquia. Leo XIII was said to be heart broken by the death of his son and a man hunt began for Roberto Solinquia, who had fled north. Solinquia was finally captured in November 160 by the Knights of Cruis and was handed over to King Leo XIII, who summarily had the assassin tortured and hung.
Early fighting: 161–163Edit
The war officially began with the raising of King Leo XIII's standard at the Battle of Véoncy on 22 March 161 AP, but prior to this, Lord Sebastien Novino led an army south from Dascunya to Arundel, Saint Jordinian . Novino had spent his years in exile raising an army of Papaist Republicans and by 161 had amassed a force of around 10,000 followers. When he arrived in [[Arundel on the 5 January 161,he declared himself President of North Samuelonia and received a hero’s welcome.
The provinces of Saint Omar, Saint Jordianian, Saint Zeus, Saint Lysander, Saint Nicholas, Saint Justinian, Saint Kleos, Saint Theo and Saint Dominicus all sided with President Novino and the Republican army quickly grew. Novino also found an ally in Angliyaa and a large number of Dascunya Republican rebels.
King Leo XIII meanwhile was supported by the provinces of High Samuelonia, Saint Francisco, Saint Samah, Saint Augustus, Saint Leo, Saint Christantius, Saint Rudolph, Saint Maximus, Saint Tiberious, Saint Sembus and the emirates of Correana, Lamanerda, Shuquilat, Minbarrium and Muhtaseb. Louis XIII was also supported by the Kingdom of Dascunya, the Kingdom of Estontetso, Aethelnia and Trinia.
With the incursion of rebel forces in the north, Leo XIII dispatched an army of over 30,000 troops and on the 22 March 161 the Orthodox Monarchist army met the Papaist Republican army of around 23,000 at the Battle of Véoncy. Leo XIII commanded the Monarchist army, whilst Lord Fredderick Santa Roque commanded the Republican army. Santa Roque had led his army south into the Saint Samah province and that battle took place in the early morning. Whilst the Monarchist army suffered huge losses, it was the King's cavalry and the Knights of Cruis that turned the tide of the battle, who combined, totalled over 8,000 mounts. The Monarchist cavalry was led by General Montgommery Massabolardi, who after the battle was praised by the King for his fearless charge into the Republican frontline.
Although the King had been victorious, he had lost around 8,000 men through death and injury and the battered army were attacked four days later at the Battle of Somesta, by a Republican army of around 27,000, led by Lord Antonio Umberto. The Monarchist army was smashed by the rebel army and Louis XIII was forced to fall back to the fortress of Véoncy. Umberto pursued the Royal army and fought a second battle at Véoncy, where he was again victorious over Leo XIII's army after a bitter 3 day battle.
With the King's army smashed, Leo XIII became besieged inside the city of Véoncy after refusing to flee the province to escape to safety. After a week long siege, Prince Louis III arrived with a 15,000 strong mounted army and destroyed Lord Umberto's army, who were unprepared for a third battle.
After the four early battles in the Saint Samah province, Leo XIII raised a further 50,000 troops to defend the province against a four pronged invasion by the Republicans into the Saint Samah province, with Lord Tomas De Angele, Lord Lucifer Restarmio, Lord Vincenzo Morriarti and Lord James Quintanio leading the rebel attacks during earlt May 161. Whilst battles raged across Saint Samah, President Novino had dispatched a large fleet of warships, under the command of Admiral Lord Ricardo Le Gario-Rossino. The Republican fleet soon took the upper hand over the Royal Naval fleet's and roamed the Black Sea in search of Royalist ships.
The largest naval conflict of the early stages took place on the 21 July 161 at the Battle of Octavius, when 32 Republican ships of the line defeated 28 Royal ships of the line. The Royalist Admiral Lord Lucifer Franco De Amarr, cousin of Leo XIII, died during the battle, when his ship, RMS Santa Susanna was sunk by the rebels. The outcome of the Battle of Octavius saw the Republican navy gain supremacy in the Black Sea, leading to the fall of the Apollinarius Isles, Barnibus Islands, Isles of Maria, Kyriakos Islands, Lysander Isles, Montague Island and Vispania Island, who had all remained loyal to Leo XIII, fall into the hands of the rebels. For the remainder of 161, the Republican navy continued to raid Royalist coastal cities, causing massive loss of life and many of the cities suffered through the lack of trade.
Whilst the Royalist armies were tied up with fighting the rebels in Saint Samah, the emirates of Shuquilat and Minbarrium, who were loyal to Leo XIII, were invaded by Republican and Angliyaan armies. By the end of 161, the important cities of Zardaqaman, Al-Mardina, Rabbath Tagmaç, Karatay, Isadora, Helvannica, Cypriatana and Rishona all fell to the rebels. What followed was huge massacres of Mounist followers.
By the end of 162, the Republicans held over 70% of St. Samuel. The Republicans, with the support of Angliya and Phenixia, had seen the most success in north-east St. Samuel, where they had conquered the six emirates, Correana, Makaoui, Lamanerda, Shuquilat, Minbarrium and Muhtaseb. The Republicans had also made a major push into the provinces of Saint Samah, Saint Augustus and Saint Leo.
Middle phase: 163–168Edit
With huge Royalist defeats in 161 and 162, 163 started just as badly for the Royalists as the previous two years. The loss of Saint Augustus to the Republicans in January and then Saint Maximus in March, the war was beggining to look bad for King Leo XIII.
While the Republican forces had numerous successes in southern St. Samuel, they were defeated many times in the Saint Samah province. They were driven from Mira-as-Salām in April 163 as a result of the Battle of Paulinio Ridge. Lord George Le Leonidas led five seperate Republican invasions into Saint Samah throughout 163 and 164 and each time failed to make any break through.
Saint Christantinus and Saint Rudolph fell to the Republicans early in 164. Heavy fighting on the Isles of Maria in the late 163's saw the island finally fall to the Republicans in 164. The Republican Navy captured Arlington, Saint Sembus without a major fight in May 164, allowing the Republican forces to begin moving close to the High Samuelonia province. Only the fortress city of Hampton kept the Saint Sembus province from falling to the Republicans.
Fighting continued on the Dascunyan/Saint Samuel border regions between pro-Royalist Dascunya and the Republicans, supported by Angliyaa and Dascunyan Republicans. The Republican Lavender Isles and Montopauli fell to Dascunyan and Knights of Cruis forces in 165 for a brief period, before being re-taken by Lord Harold Van Ruscan in November 165
The one clear Royalist victory in the south was the Battle of Monte-Cigano in February 166. Lord Zander De Lysentine, reinforced by Lord Lukas Petrov and 2,000 Knights of Cruis mounted troops, defeated a Republican army, led by Lord Thomas Foccolli, despite the heroic defensive stand of General Marco Di Toni. Foccolli retreated to San Mariano, which De Lysentine then besieged.
The Royalist's key strategist and tactician in the east was the King's youngest son, Prince George De Amarr, Duke of Saint Rudoplh, who won victories at the Battle of Vella Cortini, Battle of Messatina and Battle of Reggio Columba which cemented Royalist control of the Saint Christantinus province and is considered one of the turning points of the war. Prince George marched to the relief of the besieged Lord Luca Clementine, (who was besieged at San Bernadino) and defeated General Giusepe Van Oldo at the Third Battle of Masso di Citta, driving Republican forces out of Saint Leo in mid-168.
General Mohammed Al-Abou Dhissan commanded large pro-Royalist Mounist armies in a number of victories in north-east St. Samuel over Angliyaan forces in late 167. The defeat of Angliyaan General Plaqios at the Battle of Hassa Paqor, saw Al-Abou Dhissan capture over 3,000 Angliyaan prisoners.
Final phase: 168-172Edit
The Royalists saw the tide of the war begin to turn in 168. Leo XIII's naval forces, who had been destroyed at the start of the war saw a number of victories in the Black Sea. Leo XIII had promoted Lord Anthony Di Motta to Grande Admiral of the Royal fleet in 167. Di Motta set about re-building the crushed Royal fleet, with ship building taking place in Davenport, Trinia and Lendosa. By January 168 Di Motta commanded 46 ships of the line. Di Motta saw early victories at the Battle of Cape Vispania and Battle of Gabina. The biggest victory came on 9 June 170 at the Battle of Maria. Republican Admiral Lord Ricardo Le Gario-Rossino, made a final effort to regain supremacy in the Black Sea and led 47 ships of the line towards the High Samuelonia coast. After a number of smaller victories Le Gario-Rossino met Di Motta off the Isles of Maria.
Di Motta commanded 29 ships of the line and was supported by 6 Estontetson, 5 Lendosan and 3 Trinian ships of the line. In what was to become one of the largest most bloody naval battles of history, Di Motta was victorious in defeating Le Gario-Rossino's Republican fleet. Le Gario-Rossino managed to escape certain death and was pursued across the Black Sea, before surrendering to a Royalist fleet off the coast of Bowdani on 21 September 170. The defeat for the Republicans at the Battle of Maria ended the Republicans naval supremacy and as a result saw a steep decline in important supplies.
General Mohammed Al-Abou Dhissan continued to regain lost territory in north-east St. Samuel after a string of famous victories, the bigest coming in February 169 at the Battle of Bab El Nohr against an Angliyaan army of 48,000. Al-Abou Dhissan commanded a force of 33,000 and in along and bloody battle out manouvered the larger Angliyaan force to win an important victory. With the victory at Bab El Nohr, Al-Abou Dhissan pursued the beaten Angliyaan's back into Angliyaan territory.
With the Royalist beggining to gain an upper hand in the Saint Samah province, President Novino, travelled to the central region along with a large army, 60,000 strong, in a bid to turn the tide of the campaign. Novino had a number of victories during 170 and managed to reach High Samuelonia. King Leo XIII in an attempt to halt the incursion met Novino on the outskirts of Charlemont. The battle took place on a cold December morning and with over 100,000 combatants on the battle field, losses were high. The Battle of Charlemont saw huge fatalities on both sides, but after a two day battle, the Royalists defeated Novino's Republican army.
With the Republican army all but defeated, Novino faced almost certain death, deep in Royalist territory. To Novino's relief, reinforcements arrived on the third day of battle to bolster the Republican army. With 20,000 fresh troops, the Republicans gained an upper hand on the third and fourth day of battle. Leo XIII had sent for his own reinforcements and on the fifth day of battle, two of the King's sons, Prince Louis III, heir apparent and Prince Enrique, Duke of Shuquilat, arrived with a further 18,000 troops, a force which had been left behind to defend the capital Francisco. Also arriving was the famous Royalist, General Ronaldo Van De Luxor, with a force of 4,000 foot soldiers and 2,500 mounted troops. The fifth day of battle took place ending in a stale mate. With the battle going into a sixth and seventh day, and the Republican along way from it's supply lines, Novino's army began to suffer. On the eighth and final day of battle, General Montgommery Massabolardi, famed leader of the King's cavalry, led a 3,000 strong cavalry charge. The mounted attack, smashed what remained of the Republican front line and upon breaking the central flank, casued the Republican army to scatter. The King then sent in his foot soldiers who destroyed the fleeing Republican army. General Montgommery Massabolardi was cut down in the famous attack, with became known as the "Charge of the Royal mounted brigade." It is said that Massabolardi continued to fight, with his sabre, having been shot and stabbed and the much loved General died a hero's death.
Novino fled the battle field with his regiment of body guards and went into hideing in the hills surrounding Charlemont. He then somehow managed to escape capture and returned north to Arundel, where he set about rebuilding his army.
The Royalist army regained control of the Saint Samah province after the Battle of Charlemont with relative ease. And whilst the King pushed on into Saint Francisco, his youngest son, Prince George De Amarr, Duke of Saint Rudoplh, was victorious in pushing the Republicans out of south-east St. Samuel.
By the beggining of 172, the Republicans had all but been destroyed. Novino and his most loyal Generals had fallen back to Montopauli, Saint Omar and had been encircled by the Royalist armies. On the 3 November 172, Novino met King Leo XIII for one final bout, at the Battle of Montopauli. Only the most loyal Republicans remained by Novino's side, leaving a force of 12,000, whilst King Leo XIII commanded an army over 60,000. The Republicans fought the Royalists from the walls of Montopauli city, but in the face of a force, six times larger, Novino stood little chance. The Republicans fought valiantly on this final day, but were helpless to stop the Royalist forces storming the city. Novino made one final stand, to the entrance of Montopauli Cathedral. Prior to meeting his death, Novino thanked his loyal brethren and along with fifty soldiers, charged out of the Cathedral into a hail of fire from Royalist troops.
Victory and aftermathEdit
Historians have debated whether the Republicans could have won the war. Most scholars emphasize that the Royalists held an insurmountable long-term advantage over the Republicans in terms of industrial strength and population. Republican actions, they argue, only delayed defeat. But for the first half of the war, the Republicans had held the upper hand. Some historians believe that had the Republicans been victorious at the Battle of Charlemont, Novino would have gone on to conquer Francisco.
King Leo XIII gave his victory to the fact he had found military leaders like Van De Luxor, Al-Abou Dhissan, Massabolardi and his son's Prince Louis III, Prince Eduardo, Prince Enrique and Prince George who pressed the Royalist's numerical advantage in battle over the Republican Armies. Generals who did not shy from bloodshed won the war, and from the end of 171 onward there was no hope for the Republicans.
After the end of the War, Republican leaders were rounded up and put on trial for treason. The leaders of the disloyal provinces were replaced by Royalist Generals who had served the King well during the war and large portions of land were given out to Royalist veterans. Of the 150,000 Republicans that had been captured, 2,200 were executed for treason. The King's advisors were critical of Leo XIII's decision to release nearly 150,000 disloyal subjects. But the King had tired of the bloodshed and was firm but fair to those that had opposed him in battle. Whilst ill-ffeling towards Papaist Cruisians was at an all time high, the government came down strong on those found commiting atrocities against Papaist followers.
Some continued organised Republican resistance in northern St. Samuel continued under General Vicor Di Esqo, who in early 174 managed to take control of Arundel Castle. But the minor rebellion was quickly quelled and the city taken back by Royalist forces.
Founding of a Democratic Saint SamuelEdit
Whilst the war resulted in victory for the Royalists, King Leo XIII recognised the Papaist populations desire for an end to monarchy in St. Samuel. Around 15,000,000 citizens were followers of Papaism, amounting to around 35% of the population. In order to appease this large section of the nation, Leo XIII set about plans to introduce a democratic system by by implementing national parliment of minister, headed by a Prime Minister. The plans for the very first democratic elections were unveiled in 184, but two months before the first elections, King Leo XIII died. The new King, Louis III, continued with his fathers wish and the elections were held on 1 August 184. It was famed Royalist General, Ronaldo Van De Luxor, who was elected to become St. Samuel's very first Prime Minister, thus entering a new era in Samuelonian politics. The nation became known as the United Federal Kingdom of St. Samuel, retaining it's constitutional and hereditary monarchy with legislative power being exercised by the King, but in conjunction with the Prime Minister and Parliament.
With Prime Minister Van De Luxor, he chose a council of twenty ministers, who would be responsible for the direction of the internal and external affairs of the country and assist the King and the Prime Minister in the running of the nation. Further elections were held in every province and emirate, where ten senators were elected to represent each region, to voice the peoples opinion in the House of Senators.
- 310,000 killed in action
- 960,000 total dead
- 675,200 wounded
- 273,000 killed in action
- 660,000 total dead
- 437,000 wounded
Atrocities during the warEdit
The worst effected region during the war was by far the north-east Mounist emirates. It is estimated that around 200,000 Mounist civillians were executed for there religous beliefs. The most notorious leader for the atrocities was Republican General, Alberto Gonza-Illaldo, who ordered the death of thousands of civillians when he conquered Mounist cities. Mosques and Mounist relics were also wrecked and destroyed leading to a long lasting resentment towards Papaist Samuelonians.
Prominent military commandersEdit
- Leo XIII of Saint Samuel
- General Ronaldo Van De Luxor
- Prince Louis III De Amerr, Heir Apparent
- Prince Eduardo, Duke of High Samuelonia
- Prince Enrique, Duke of Shuquilat
- Prince George De Amarr, Duke of Saint Rudoplh
- General Montgommery Massabolardi
- General Mohammed Al-Abou Dhissan
- Grande Admiral Anthony Di Motta
- Grande Admiral Lord Lucifer Franco De Amarr
- Lord Zander De Lysentine
- Lord Lukas Petrov
- Lord Luca Clementine
- Lord Sebastien Novino
- Admiral Lord Ricardo Le Gario-Rossino
- Lord Fredderick Santa Roque
- Lord Antonio Umberto
- Lord Tomas De Angele
- Lord Lucifer Restarmio
- Lord Vincenzo Morriarti
- Lord James Quintanio
- Lord George Le Leonidas
- Lord Harold Van Ruscan
- Lord Thomas Foccolli
- General Marco Di Toni
- General Giusepe Van Oldo
- General Zlatan Plaqios
- General Victor Di Esqo