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Somerish language

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Somerish is the official language of the Shires of Somery, and spoken by few people outside its borders. At a quick glance the Somerish language resembles Ingallish, with which it is related, but its grammar is slightly different, and its vocabulary, and, to a certain degree, its spelling is quite archaic in comparison. Most Somerish people have quite a good knowledge of Ingallish, though.


VocabularyEdit

The main reason for the difference in vocabulary between Somerish and Ingallish is that more than half of the Ingallish words are loanwords, mainly from Liliani, while Somerish has kept most of its original words, e.g. lore for science, tilth for agriculture, kingly for royal, chirtness for beauty etc., and the incorporation of several Classical Estron words, e.g. kirth for music, and pridworth for beautiful, alongside with Ingallish ones. You can also find more archaic spellings, like the kept 'l' in whilch, Ing. which, and sulch, Ing. such, and that some words have developped differently in comparison which Ingallish, e.g. altheigh, Ing. although, swote, Ing. sweat (noun), yieve, Ing. give.

PronunciationEdit

Generally the Somerish pronunciation is more orthographic than the Ingallish. E.g. 'gh' after 'i' at the end of words and between 'i' and 't' in words like 'night' and 'right' is clearly audible as a palatal fricative, 'wh' is a voiceless equivalent to the voiced 'w', the 'k' is audible as a light 'd' sound in words like 'knight' and 'know', and the 'w' in e.g. 'write' can be heard as a 'v'-sound. The pronunciation of the long 'i' differs in that although it is a diphthong like in Ingallish /ai/ the stress is on the second vowel, the 'i', instead of the 'a', which is also more obscure than in its Ingallish counterpart.

DialectsEdit

Dialectwise there are few variations, although people in the larger cities tend to speak more clearly than in the rural areas. A slightly rolling 'r' is more common in the northern shires, where also diphthongs are less marked. Ingallish spoken in Christiana is jokingly referred to, by the Somerish, as brawdish or troat.

Keeping the SpeechEdit

is an organization working for the banning of new loanwords and for the invention of purely Somerish words in their place, e.g. fernspeaker for telephone, and wireless for radio, although some of these inventions may seem impractical and confusing in the increasingly global society we see developping today.

GrammarEdit

Somerish grammar is not quite as polished as that of Ingallish. The most noticeable differences are probably the case inflections of the pronouns and the definite article, the more complicated verb inflections with a larger number of strong verbs, and the wider use of the plural ending -en in words like brother-brethren. Other irregular plurals are also more common.


NounsEdit

The Somerish language knows only two genders, the common gender (a merge of the Old English masculine and feminine genders), and the neuter. The only differences are the definite article in nom. sing., and that most neuter words have the same forms in the singular and the plural. The various forms of the definite article are as follows:

Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.
Sing. the (common)

thet (neuter)

thone thes them
Plur. the tho thore thome


Most common nouns form their plurals by adding an -s, using the same rules as Ingallish. There are quite a few exceptions, though, usually nouns ending in -e using the plural ending -n. e.g.

wrighte wrighten worker, producer
knave knaven young man, boy
herte herten heart
frowe frowen wife
mewle mewlen young woman, girl
nome nomen name
shoe shoen shoe


One neuter word follows this rule:

eare earen ear


Most neuter words, though, have no ending in the plural, e.g.

house house house
sheep sheep sheep
horse horse horse
bearn bearn child


Some nouns have developed irregular plural forms, e.g.

mother medren mother
brother brethren brother
doughter dightren daughter
eye eyne eye
cow kine cow
year yere year


Some nouns have a vowel change in the plural without an ending, e.g.

book beech book
mouse meese mouse
noot neet nut
man men man
goose yeese goose


Nouns ending in -end, based on the present participle, are usually unchanged in the plural.


AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives have two forms, weak and strong. The weak is used when the adjective is preceded by the definite article or a demonstrative or possessive adjective of some form, and is formed by adding an -e unless the adjective already ends with that letter. The strong form, using the -e only in the plural, is used in all other contexts. Adjectives ending with an -y replace this with -iye.

an ald man

an old man

the alde man

the old man

alde men

old men

the alde men

the old men


an new house

a new house

thet newe house

the new house

newe house

new houses

the newe house

the new houses


thet newe house thes alde man

the new house of the old man

the newe house thore alde men

the new houses of the old men


an seely mewle

a happy girl

the seeliye mewle

the happy girl

seeliye mewlen

happy girls

the seeliye mewlen

the happy girls


the seeliye mewle on them alde house

the happy girl in the old house

the seeliye mewlen on thome alde house

the happy girls in the old houses


Comparison is formed by adding -er, and -est. Some adjectives mutate in comparative and superlative, e.g.

ald elder eldest old
yong yinger yingest young
long lenger lengest long
strong strenger strengest strong
heigh hier heighst high
neigh near neighst near, close


Some adjectives have irregular comparison, e.g.

michel more meast big
littel less least little
good better

seeler

best

seelest

good
uvel, wersly werse werst bad, evil


An unstressed -e- in the last syllable of a disyllabic adjective is generally dropped when the word is inflected.

an coren king a chosen king the corne king the chosen king
an weden house a blue house thet wedne house the blue house
an michel town a big city the mich(e)le town the big city


Note that if an adjective is used as a noun it keeps its uninflected form in the singular, while the inflected one is used in the plural.

an coren a chosen one the coren the chosen one corne chosen ones the corne the chosen ones


AdverbsEdit

Adverbs are usually formed by adding -lish, or, if an adjective ends in -ly, by changing it to -lish. In some cases it is formed by simply adding an -e. Comparison is formed in the same way as adjectives, some also have irregular forms, e.g.

mickle mo most much
litte less least little
well bet

seel

best

seelest

well
uvele wierse wierst badly


NumeralsEdit

Cardinal Ordinal
1 an forme
2 tweyne other
3 three thridde
4 fower ferthe
5 five fifte
6 six sixte
7 seven sevethe
8 eighte eightethe
9 neyne neythe
10 teene teithe
11 endleven endlefte
12 twelf twelfte
13 therteene therteithe
14 fowerteene fowerteithe
15 fifteene fifteithe
16 sixteene sixteithe
17 seventeene seventeithe
18 eighteene eighteithe
19 neynteene neynteithe
20 twenty twentiyethe
21 an and twenty an and twentiyethe
30 therty thertiyethe
40 fowerty fowertiyethe
50 half hund, fifty fiftiyethe
60 hund sixty hund sixtiyethe
70 hund seventy hund seventiyethe
80 hund eighty hund eightiyethe
90 hund neynty hund neyntiyethe
100 hund teenty hund teentiyethe
110 hund endleventy hund endleventiyethe
120 hund twelfty hund twelftiyethe
130 other hund therty other hund thertiyethe
131 other hund an and therty other hund an and thertiyethe
150 other half hund other hund fiftiyethe
200 other hund teenty other hund teentiyethe
220 other hund twelfty other hund twelftiyethe
350 ferthe half hund ferthe hund fiftiyethe
1000 thousand thousandethe
1500 other half thousand thousand fifte hund teentiyethe


A few of the numerals are inflected according to the cases. They are

Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.
an an/en/ anes anem one
tweyne tweyne tweyre twem two
three three threire thrim three
beyne beyne beyre bem both


Personal PronounsEdit

Nom Acc Gen Dat
igh me min me I
thou thee thin thee you, sing.
he hin his him he
it it his him it
ho hey her her she
we us our us we
ye you your you you, pl
hey hem heir hem they


Reflexive PronounsEdit

There are no special reflexive pronouns but the ordinary personal pronouns are used, with self used emphatically, e.g. igh minde me, I remember, igh minde me self, I myself remember.

Relative PronounsEdit

In formal written language whilch and who are normally used as relative pronouns, but in the spoken language and less formal prose whit is very common, basically a corruption of whilch, often preceded by the definite article in a suitably inclined form.


The street, the whit leat tohavenward, is small.

The street that leads towards the harbour is narrow.

Thet house, on them whit we wonon, is weden.

The house in which we live is blue.

The house, tho whit we sawon andlong thes haven, weron wedne.

The houses, that we saw along the harbour, were blue.

The men, mid thome whit we spakon, been alde.

The men, with whom we spoke, are old.

The breydwayn, thone whit igh saugh, fore overswift.

The car that I saw was going too fast.

Possessive AdjectivesEdit

Sing. Pl.
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.
min minen mines minem mine mine miner minem my
thin thinen thines thinem thine thine thiner thinem your, sg.
his hissen hisses hissem his his hisser hissem his, its
her hern hers herem her her herrer herem her
our our/e/n ours ourem oure oure ourer ourem our
your your/e/n yours yourem youre youre yourer yourem your, pl
heir heir/e/n heirs heirem heire heir heirer heirem their


The accusative is used as an absolute form, e.g. this house is our/e/n, these house been ourne.

Demonstrative AdjectivesEdit

Sing. Pl.
Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat. Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.
this thissen thisses thissem these these thisser thissem this
yon yon/en/ yones yonem yone yone yoner yonem that


Like yon is som.


Interrogative Pronouns & AdjecivesEdit

Nom. Acc. Gen. Dat.
who whon whose whom who
what what whose whom what
whilch sing whilchen whilches whilchem which
whilche plur whilche whilcher whilchem


Like whilch are swilch such; thilch the like, similar; ealch each, every; som some; and eller other.


VerbsEdit

Somerish verbs can be divided into 4 groups; Weak regular, weak irregular, strong, and auxiliary.


RegularEdit

Regular verbs follow simple rules, keeping the root unchanged in all forms.


to live

to live

to deeme

to judge

to love

to love

to shewe

to watch

Pr.s.1 igh live deeme love shewe
Pr.s.2 thou livest deem/e/st lovest shewest
Pr.s.3 he liveth deemeth loveth sheweth
Pr.pl.1 we livon deemon lovon shew
Pr.pl.2 ye liveth deemeth loveth sheweth
Pr.pl.3 hey livon deemon lovon shewon
Pt.s.1 igh livde deemde lovede shewde
Pt.s.2 thou livd/e/st deemd/e/st loved/e/st shewd/e/st
Pt.s.3 he livde deemde lovede shewde
Pt.pl.1 we livdon deemdon lovedon shewdon
Pt.pl.2 ye livdeth deemdeth lovedeth shewdeth
Pt.pl.3 hey livdon deemdon lovedon shewdon
Pt.part. (ye)lived (ye)deemed (e)loved (e)shewed
Imp. live thou!
live ye!
live we!
deem thou!
deeme ye!
deeme we!
love thou!
love ye!
love we!
shew thou!
shewe ye!
shewe we!


IrregularEdit

Irregular verbs usually have a mutated vowel in the 2nd and 3rd pers. in the present tense, and changes vowel and sometimes also a consonant in the past tense and past participle.The verbs were no doubt regular once but have developed into their present state over time.


to thenche

to think

to make

to make

to like

to please

to fridge

to investigate

Pr.s.1 igh thenche make like fridge
Pr.s.2 thou thenchest makest likest fryest
Pr.s.3 he thencheth maketh liketh fryeth
Pr.pl.1 we thenchon makon likon fridgon
Pr.pl.2 ye thencheth maketh liketh fridgeth
Pr.pl.3 hey thenchon makon likon fridgon
Pt.s.1 igh thoughte maughte lighte freyde
Pt.s.2 thou thought/e/st maught/e/st light/e/st freyd/e/st
Pt.s.3 he thoughte maughte lighte freyde
Pt.pl.1 we thoughton maughton lighton freydon
Pt.pl.2 ye thoughteth maughteth lighteth freydeth
Pt.pl.3 hey thoughton maughton lighton freydon
Pt.part. (e)thought (e)maught (e)light (e)freyd
Imp. thench thou!
thenche ye!
thenche we!
make thou!
make ye!
make we!
like thou!
like ye!
like we!
frye thou!
fridge ye!
fridge we!


StrongEdit

Strong verbs change vowels both in the past tense and in the past participle, which always ends in -(e)n.


to quethe

to say

to yieve

to give

to freyne

to ask

to derve

to labour

Pr.s.1 igh quethe yieve freyne derve
Pr.s.2 thou quist yiv/e/st frin/e/st durv/e/st
Pr.s.3 he quith yiveth frineth durveth
Pr.pl.1 we quethon yievon freynon dervon
Pr.pl.2 ye quetheth yieveth freyneth derveth
Pr.pl.3 hey quethon yievon freynon dervon
Pt.s.1 igh quoth yave frayn darf
Pt.s.2 thou quost yavest fraynst darfst
Pt.s.3 he quoth yave frayn darf
Pt.pl.1 we quothon yavon frewnon durvon
Pt.pl.2 ye quoth(eth) yaveth frewneth durveth
Pt.pl.3 hey quothon yavon frewnon durvon
Pt.part. queden yiven frownen dorven
Imp. quith thou!
quethe ye!
quethe we
yiv thou!
yieve ye!
yieve we!
frine thou!
freyne ye!
freyne we!
durve thou!
derve ye!
derve we!


AuxiliaryEdit

The auxiliary verb can be either weak or strong.


to have

to have

to be

to be

to werthe

to become

Pr.s.1 igh have am werthe
Pr.s.2 thou hast art wierst
Pr.s.3 he hath is wierth
Pr.pl.1 we havon been werthon
Pr.pl.2 ye haveth beeth werth
Pr.pl.3 hey havon been werthon
Pt.s.1 igh hadde was warth
Pt.s.2 thou had/de/st wer/e/st warst
Pt.s.3 he hadde was warth
Pt.pl.1 we haddon weron warthon
Pt.pl.2 ye haddeth wereth warth(eth)
Pt.pl.3 hey haddon weron warthon
Pt.part. (e)had ewerd (e)worden


The pt. part. has sometimes kept the prefix e-/ye-. Ye- is usually used when the vocal of the following syllable is an long e or a short i (e.g. yewrit, yedealed), otherwise e- is used (e.g. ecomen, eclept).


Sample textEdit

Fellow Ethelings! Brethren and Sustren thisses meyth hight the Somerishe Thede!

This day, the eighteithe Rimes thes thridde hund teenthiyethe year thes aftereld, is an sunderly day, altheigh an day, whilches igh can wislish quethe, we all feelon should naye have worden behoved. Thet Somerkin is an frithsome thede. We havon clipped and wurthed thissen frith for neigh on thridde hund teenty yere, sithen them handset thes Ewsteth Writ. We navon had neny flit mid ourem neighbours for mo thonne neyne streins. This warth all oncherred litte less thonne therteene yere agone. An theser neighbours cherred loathwend and aredde to emsette thissen land, ouren kith and ethel. Our freet warth awaned. Our selfwield forloren. After teene yere the stathel thisses hettend crumde under hissem feet and it fell. Our leesing should be ewerd rathe, ack we muston bide for thrim mo yere.

Thean, the day is ecomen. Fram thissem day forth been we ayen lowards ours own wierd. We been an frithsome thede. We ne dwellon on thome thing thore yoredays. We ne haldon neniyen tharf to be thankfulle, thean thankon we ourem Cruisanishe meyfolk, speled here on thissem day by heirem King. We ne haldon neniye onds.

Ouren may ne be thet michlieste land on them trendle, othe even thet wlitefulmoste. Ouren may ne be the mearlieste thede. We leavon it to ellerem folk to foreyelpe swilche whilchnesses. This is, theigh, our land, our kith and ethel, thet erf whilchen warth left to us and whilchen warth us yarowed by ourem eldren. This is our thede, our meyth, our liefs. Swettle we them world that mennishly wesend cunnon live on frith and glewship, on evenherteness and foryiveness, mid heirem neighbours, and mid hem self, to forswinsome tho wlites and afewings thes life, tosomne.

Thank you!


Fellow Countrymen! Brothers and Sisters of this family which we call the Somerish People!

This day, the 18th of November in the year 300 AP, is a special day, although a day of which I can with certainty say we all feel should never have been necessary. The Somerish are a peaceful people. We have cherished and respected this peace for almost three centuries, since the signing of the Ewsteth Writ. We have had no quarrel with our neighbours for more than nine generations. This was all changed little less than thirteen years ago. One of these neighbours turned hostile and decided to occupy this country, our home and fatherland. Our freedom was restricted. Our independence lost. After ten years the foundation of this enemy crumbled under its feet and it fell. Our liberation should have been immediate but we had to wait for three more years.

Nevertheless, the day is come. From this day forth we are again masters of our own destiny. We are a peaceful people. We do not dwell on things of the past. We feel no need to be grateful, yet we thank our Christianan cousins, represented here today by their King. We have no grudges.

Ours may not be the greatest country on the globe, or even the most beautiful. Ours may not be the most glorious people. We leave it to others to brag about such qualities. This is, though, our country, our home and fatherland, the heritage that was left to us and that was prepared by our forefathers. This is our people, our family, our loved ones. Let us show the world that man is able to live in peace and mutual understanding, in harmony and forgiveness with his neighbours, and with himself, enjoying the beauties and joys of life, together.

Thank You!


External linkEdit

  • [1] A Somerish wordlist


Techsign

[TECH: Somerish is a conlang (constructed language) based on Old English in addition to Welsh and other languages.]

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